Electronic control gear ECG for fluorescent lampsAll models in compact housing for space-saving application in luminaires Multi-Power technology for operation of different lamps and wattages on the same ECG Electrode preserving warm start for maximum lamp life, even at increased switching frequency; starting time < 1.5 s Cut-Off technology: minimised heat current through electrodes during operation, for optimum light output and reduced power loss. Safety switch-off in case of abnormal lamp operation, e. g. defective electrode and end of lamp life; tested acc. to EN 61347-2-3 + Test 2 Suitable for direct current operation and emergency lighting installations; complies with requirements for emergency lighting according to EN 61347- 2-3/J Constant lamp output independent of mains voltage fluctuations Optimum ignition safety even at low temperatures: automatic second start if necessary Automatic restart after lamp replacement Suitable for direct current operation and emergency lighting installations; complies with requirements for emergency lighting according to EN 61347- 2-3/J Quick restart of lamps after short power disruptions Connecting earth can be disregarded in suitable luminaires with safety classification 2 Energy efficiency EEI=A2 Nominal service life: 50.000 h with failure rate of ≤ 10% and operation at tc=tc,max
The X-ray medical imaging is one of the dependent techniques which used in the diagnosis of the patient without resorting to surgical intervention. It considers as the relatively low cost of examination and availability in the public and private sectors. X-ray is also characterized by its ability to provide good anatomical information about bones and interference among bones and soft tissues, but is relatively unable to provide complete anatomical information about the soft tissues which located in the same site or to show the boundaries between these tissues or to distinguish between normal and abnormal soft tissues Which has a negative effect on the diagnostic ability of X-ray medical imaging. To overcome these obstacles, the contrast agents (iodine-based) were used with X-ray medical imaging for the 50 years ago, the use of these chemical components has side effects such as( kidney failure, heart stroke, negative effects on the liver and spleen) and use restrictions such as lack of Imaging time and poor contrast for obese patients. Gold nanoparticles overcome most of these restrictions with low toxicity due to its size and properties and allow for a long time of imaging.
In this study, the goal is to analyze the contagion effect that a bank's failure, Bear Stearns', could have had on two groups of banks in the UK market. The main one is composed of ten banks and the control one of five. The groups of banks were selected based on their assets size. We used an event study and analyzed abnormal returns and cumulative abnormal returns, on different event windows, to study the impact of this announcement on the two samples. After conducting the event study and running both simple and multiple regressions, we found a small contagion effect in the form of negative abnormal returns for three banks following Bear Stearns' failure.
A water distribution network (WDN) should accommodate the abnormal conditions caused by failures. These types of failures can be classified into two groups, mechanical failures and hydraulic failures. Mechanical failure is caused due to malfunctioning of the network elements such as pipe breakage. Hydraulic failure, on the other hand, considers system failure due to distributed flow and pressure head which are inadequate at one or more demand points. This study deals with the calculation of the hydraulic system reliability of an existing WDN. A case study was carried out on a part of Ankara (Turkey) WDN. The daily demand curves for the area were drawn using the data that were taken from SCADA of the water utility. The friction coefficients of the pipes and storage tank water elevation were taken as other uncertainty parameters. The sensitivity analysis for the effects of system characteristics and model assumptions were carried out. Results of this study were helpful to see the effects of different parameters on the hydraulic reliability calculations and for assessment of the methods for improving the reliability for the network.
A breaker restrike is an abnormal arcing phenomenon, leading to a possible breaker failure. Eventually, this failure leads to interruption of the transmission and distribution of the electricity supply system until the breaker is replaced. Before 2008, there was little evidence in the literature of monitoring techniques based on restrike measurement and interpretation produced during switching of capacitor banks and shunt reactor banks in power systems. In 2008 a non-intrusive radiometric restrike measurement method and a restrike hardware detection algorithm were developed by M.S. Ramli and B. Kasztenny. However, the limitations of the radiometric measurement method are a band limited frequency response as well as limitations in amplitude determination. Current restrike detection methods and algorithms require the use of wide bandwidth current transformers and high voltage dividers. A restrike switch model using Alternative Transient Program (ATP) and Wavelet Transforms which support diagnostics are proposed. Restrike phenomena become a new diagnostic process using measurements, ATP and Wavelet Transforms for online interrupter monitoring.
From a capital market perspective, the author analyzes Merger and Acquisitions transactions (M&A) and in-licensings in the pharmaceutical industry between 1998 and 2012. Utilizing the event study methodology, the volume shows that M&A experiences significant, negative cumulative average abnormal returns whereas in-licensings are able to create value. But what are the underlying value drivers which make a deal a success or a failure story? The author derives significant innovative determinants of success for both strategies.
In this book, we present a pilot control algorithm, which converts two joysticks commands into two torque directives for movement. This technique allows the user to operate the ABTWC linearly for both motion and orientation control via a joystick. Since a human being is involved in the operation of an ABTWC, the rider faces the danger of being injured in a fall if any system failure occurs. Therefore, the rider should be warned immediately when any system failure develops, ensuring that proper action can be taken to avoid a dangerous accident. A model-based fault-detection filter is designed to detect sensor faults. This book employs a PI observer to detect abnormal information in an ABTWC caused by actuator faults and steering load-torques. In order to promptly alert the rider for safety purposes in the event of a malfunction, the decision-making process to identify a critical failure is investigated. A statistical threshold that has the benefits of improving decision-making reliability is investigated for diagnosing a possible abnormal operation and/or a serious system malfunction.