Bachelor Thesis from the year 2019 in the subject Medicine - Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, language: English, abstract: This paper aims to determine whether APOE4 genotype and AD-related pathological load in the form of CSF-derived Abeta and tau can be used for prediction of mnemonic discrimination performance in cognitively healthy, non-demented elderly. Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects millions worldwide, primarily in the elderly population. To date, virtually all drug therapies have failed to effectively treat AD. Subjects carrying the APOE4 gene are known to be at up to 12-times increased risk for AD. The underlying pathological changes in the form of beta-amyloid plaques (Ab) and tau tangles are detectable two decades before symptoms of memory decline arise and can be measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Early detection of AD in cognitively normal elderly would open a window of opportunity for treatment and preventative measures. This study aims to determine whether APOE4 genotype and AD-related pathological load in the form of CSF-derived Ab and tau can be used for prediction of mnemonic discrimination performance in non-demented elderly.The global prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias was 43.8 million in 2016 and is likely to exceed 152 million by 2050. It affects 40 % of individuals above 85 and is characterised by episodic memory decline, confusion, as well as other cognitive deficits in later stages of the disease. This global epidemic is estimated to cost over 1 trillion US Dollar, creating a serious burden for healthcare systems worldwide. At an earlier stage, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) describes abnormal forms of cognitive decline that have not reached the severity of dementia. MCI affects approximately 16-20 percent of elderly aged 65 or above and 24-32 % of individuals with MCI progress to dementia. In contrast to MCI, the diagnosis of dementia requires low performance of one or more cognitive domains with significant interference in everyday activities. AD is more prevalent in women, who make up two-thirds of all cases in the US. Further, African Americans are twice as likely and Hispanics one-and-a-half times as likely to be diagnosed with AD than Caucasians. While biological differences play a partial role, for example through a stronger AD-association with the ABCA7 risk gene in African Americans, socioeconomic characteristics such as education level are more likely to drive this disproportion. Further, African Americans have a higher prevalence of diabetes, obesity and hypertension, all of which are associated with AD.
Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation from the year 2012 in the subject Medicine - Neurology, Psychiatry, Addiction, grade: 10, Jawaharlal Nehru University (ALIGARH MUSLIM UNIVERSITY), course: MD PSYCHIATRY, language: English, abstract: Schizophrenia is a clinical syndrome of variable, but profoundly disruptive, psychopathology that involves cognition, emotion, perception, and other aspects of behavior. The disorder usu-ally begins before age 25, persists throughout life, and affects persons of all social classes. In the United States, the lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia is about 1 percent, which means that about 1 person in 100 will develop schizophrenia during their lifetime. The prevalence of schizophrenia in India is 2.5/1000 as reported by Ganguli in 2000 and 2.7/1000 by Reddy et al. in 1998.A growing body of evidence suggests that peripheral activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation are abnormal in schizophrenic subjects. Mahadik found increased lipid pe-roxidation products and altered defence system in both chronic and drug-naive first episode schizophrenics. The accumulated results indicate that oxidative stress is integral to this disease and not the result of neuroleptic treatment.
Self-medication phenomenon is one of the acute health problems more important in women, because they have encountered critical periods such as pregnancy. Current study has been aimed to determine the prevalence of this phenomenon and some of its correlative factors in pregnant women referred to Iranian Hospital-Dubai. In this Descriptive cross - sectional study, 450 pregnant women referred to Iranian Hospital-Dubaiwere selected randomly, and examined using interview and questionnaire. Given the high cost of drug production andunpredicted adverse effects of self-consumption, especially during pregnancy whichcan lead to abnormal birth, it is necessary to raise the level of culture and lack of self-medication, particularly in women.
Ectopic pregnancy is abnormal condition in which implantation of the blastocyst occurs outside the endometrium of the uterus. It is of gynecological importance, particularly in the developing world, because of the associated enormous high morbidity, during the first trimester of pregnancy. A better understanding of its determinants can help to prevent its prevalence. This book explores determinants of ectopic pregnancies. Current reaserch is organized after reviewing different literature's so that it can either be read cover to cover for a comprehensive tutorial or be kept desk side as a reference to the ectopic pregnancies.
This book intend to provide for the treatment of bronchiectasis.Bronchiectasis is one of the most common diseases in the rural and industrialareas of India. There are reports of high prevalence in relatively isolated populations with poor access to health care and high rates of respiratory tract infections during childhood.Bronchiectasis is an abnormal dilatation of the bronchi associated with obstruction and infection. Clinically, Bronchiectasis is defined as an abnormal dilatation of medium size bronchi and bronchioles (about the fourth to ninth generations), generally associated with previous, chronic necrotizing infections within these passages.Even though both ACBT and Postural Drainage techniques are found to have significant effect in clearing the airways, the Active cycle of breathing technique has a better effect than the postural drainage and thereby improving pulmonary function in patients with bronchiectasis.
Obesity is defined as an abnormal or excessive accumulation of fat that may impair health. According to World Health Organization (WHO), an individual with a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2 is obese and severe or class III obesity is defined as a BMI equal to or greater than 40 kg/m2, this term is also used for individuals with a BMI between 30 and 39.9 kg/m2 who have significant comorbidities. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) has recommended bariatric surgery for such individuals. The prevalence of severe obesity has increased significantly in the last two to three decades. Mexico and the United States of America have the highest prevalence in the world and the United Kingdom is leading in Europe. BMI is used as a surrogate for adiposity. There are other methods like bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), hydrometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and others but for all clinical and interventional purposes, BMI is used as a measure of obesity.
This book provides comprehensive knowledge about thyroid gland and highlights the recent trends in the management of thyroid dysfunctions.Thyroid disorders are amongst the most prevalent of medical conditions possibly after diabetes. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in adults in the general population ranges from 1 to 10 percent, and is even higher in selected groups. In the United Kingdom, 1-2% of the adult population is found to have thyroid dysfunction. It is interesting to note that thyroxin is the sixth most commonly dispensed drug in Scotland. Virtually all studies report higher prevalence rates for hypothyroidism in women and with advancing age. Abnormal thyroid functions have important public health consequences. Suppressed TSH levels have been associated with decreased bone density and with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation and premature atrial beat. It has been known for decades that overt hypothyroidism contributes to elevated serum cholesterol levels and cardiovascular risk and recent studies suggest this may also be true with subclinical hypothyroidism.
Today Hypertension is the leading risk of premature death worldwide and often called as ''Silent Killer''. Prevalence of Hypertension is almost 40% in both sexes. Study has reported that hypertension is 4th contributor to premature death in developed countries and 7th in developing countries. Analysis of worldwide data on global burden of hypertension showed overall prevalence of 30-45% among adult population in 2015(ESC /ESH). It is ranked as the third most important risk factor for attributable burden of disease in South Asia. In last 3 decades, a lot of concerted efforts have been channelled into researching the local plants with anti-hypertensive therapeutic values. About 75-80% of world population use herbal medicines because of their better acceptability with human body and lesser side effects. Here in this book we include only one clinical trial of Clerodendrum glandulosum Lindl. and some brief description of antihypertensive herbs. During the period of study no any abnormal effect were observed and all studies shows very significant result statistically.
Accurate and exhaustive, this book provides a wide overview of the current knowledge on phenotypes, mechanisms and treatment of autism spectrum disorders. It covers topics on diagnostic issues, comorbid conditions and therapeutic strategies along with a detailed discussion on the actual understanding of the pathophysiology of autism disorders. More specifically, this book reviews in detail the current knowledge on the comorbidity between mental and medical disorders, describes abnormal cognitive and social development and gives a thorough overview on genetic as well as brain imaging abnormalities observed in autism spectrum disorders. In addition, the current literature on environmental risk factors which may provide an explanation for the increased prevalence of autism is being described. The last chapter gives an extensive review of early detection and early therapeutic interventions encompassing psycho-social and pharmacological strategies. Each chapter is easy to read and gives the reader access to the most important information on each topic covered. This book provides innovative reading material for medical students, psychologists, researchers and clinicians who need accurate information on the best available diagnostic and therapeutic strategies as well as on up-to-date research data.