Erscheinungsdatum: 05/2009, Medium: Taschenbuch, Einband: Kartoniert / Broschiert, Titel: SOUTH ASIAN WOMEN'S EXPERIENCESFOLLOWING ABNORMAL PAP SMEAR RESULTS, Titelzusatz: Exploration of Canadian South Asian immigrant women'sexperiences and perceptions with the receipt ofabnormal Pap Smears from the family physician., Autor: Singh-Carlson, Savitri, Verlag: VDM Verlag, Sprache: Englisch, Rubrik: Wirtschaft // Sonstiges, Seiten: 108, Informationen: Paperback, Gewicht: 177 gr, Verkäufer: averdo
Sex workers are the most marginalised and stigmatised group of women. The nature of the industry of selling sex to multiple sexual partners has a ripple effect on the health of people involved in the sex work cycle. Sex workers are considered to be a high risk group in the acquisition and transmission of STIs which include Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Out of fear of being ridiculed at health care facilities, are unable to visit health facilities for routine health check-ups resulting in delayed health intervention. The monograph seeks to describe the prevalence of abnormal pap-smear among sex workers in Hillbrow, Johannesburg, South Africa. Additionally, describe the difference between Pap smear results between HIV positive and negative sex workers. However, further studies are required to explore the sexual health of sex workers that may influence a review on the National Cervical Cancer Screening Policy to take into consideration the needs of high risk population, such as sex workers.
This ethnographic study approached this problem byexamining South Asian women s descriptions of theirexperiences of receiving abnormal Pap test resultsand of their follow-up diagnostic evaluations.Littleinformation exists about women''s experiencesfollowing abnormal cervical screening resultsparticularly within the context of current healthcare services and structures, and regarding theirperceptions of the adequacy of the information,counseling and support provided.Obvious issues suchas language, cultural values, and beliefs, along withunderlying societal, individual and institutionalfactors that co-exist with health care providers ability to effectively communicate were described bythe participants. Although some health providersattempt to provide culturally sensitive careincluding the use of interpreters andlanguage-specific printed information for women whodo not speak English, others lack the resources toprovide such care.Obvious issues such as language,cultural values, and beliefs, along with underlyingsocietal, individual and institutional factors thatco-exist with health providers ability toeffectively communicate were described by theparticipants.
Cervix cancer screening nowadays, which is done manually by the cytologist, is inefficient and time consuming. It requires high skills and experiences of the cytologists. This requirement leads to a condition where the diagnosis is inherently prone to the human error. Coping with this problem, this research is to introduce an automated diagnosis algorithm for early detection of cervix cancer. The diagnosis algorithm is developed to recognize pattern on 2-dimensional digital cervical cytological image produced from Pap smear slides. Pattern recognition is applied to variables of cell morphology and color intensity. Afterward, measurements and identification of cells into normal and abnormal class is done on the basis of parameters color intensity, N/C ratio, and 2D wavelet approximation coefficients. The automated diagnosis algorithm is intended to improve reliability as well as to reduce time consumption in the diagnosis of cervix cancer. Therefore, this will produce more accurate, faster and less expensive analysis of Pap smear test, which can be used to provide better health service for public community.
This is a book written on a work basically done to check the efficacy of conventional pap smear to detect endometrial cells in abnormal uterine bleeding cases and to compare the findings to the gold standard histo-pathology. Samples were also collected from the same patients in liquid based medium and smears were prepared by manual processing so that the obscuring factor like hemorrhage and inflammation got cleared.Results were analysed and compared.Without the knowledge of proper history, presence of endometrial cells can not be ignored at any age specially at elderly people. With the implementation of manual liquid based cytology, we introduce a cost-effective screening method to observe morphology against clear background in economically constraint setup.
Cervical cancer is still a burden in our subregion. In the absence of effective screening programs, opportunistic screening remains the mainstay of early diagnosis. The postnatal clinic check-up may be the only window of opportunity to screen women who meet the inclusion criteria. In this study 3% of postnatal women had abnormal Pap smear. Colposcopy evaluation however, did not show abnormal findings. The patients are still on follow up. This study also shows that awareness on cervical cancer is low. Although 13% of the women had heard of cervical cancer, only 5% had a fair idea what it was. This is instructive considering that 51% of the women studied had tertiary education. An unforeseen challenge in the course of the study was the reluctance of women to voluntarily accept to be screened even when it was free.
Most cervical cancer cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage as cytology based screening programmes are ineffective in developing countries. This study was done to look for carcinoma cervix and its precursors by visual inspection with Lugol s iodine (VILI), visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) & Pap smear, and to analyze their sensitivity, specificity & predictive values using colposcopic directed biopsy as reference. 350 women were subjected to Pap smear, VIA, VILI and colposcopy. Cervical biopsy & endocervical curettage was taken from patients positive on any of these and in 10% of negative cases. Pap smear was abnormal in 3.71%, including 2.85% low grade & 0.85% high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. 13% of patients were found to be positive by VIA & 11.71% were positive on VILI. Sensitivity for VIA, VILI & Pap smear was 89.5, 100 & 52.6 %, respectively, while the specificity for VIA, VILI & Pap smear was 91.2, 93.3 & 99.1%, respectively. Thus, in low resource settings, cervical cancer screening by Pap smear can be replaced by visual methods like VILI, which has the highest sensitivity (100%) to detect any grade of dysplasia, and a good specificity (93.3%).
There are approximately 55,000 practicing ob/gyns in the United States. The obstetrics and gynecology residency training authority (the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education) has now pushed ambulatory primary and preventative care to the top of its list for residency training. Interest in the area of ambulatory gynecology is not just growing in the field of ob/gyn, however, family and primary care practitioners, emergency room physicians, and advance practice nurses all must know how to diagnose, manage, and treat gynecological conditions. Since office technology has expanded and decision-making has become increasingly complex, physicians need a guide through the endless list of treatment options for commonly presenting gynecologic disorders. Ambulatory Gynecology gives practitioners tools for diagnosis, investigation and management of these disorders, including decision-making algorithms. The text is evidence-based. From endocrine disorders to breast disease, preventative measures for osteoporosis to management of an abnormal pap smear, from adolescent gynecology to menopause, this book is crucial for office-based physicians to feel confident practicing in all areas of gynecology.
Automated counters provide data on blood samples with greater speed and precision than manual microscopic methods, but generate reports with unfamiliar terms as well as previously unavailable types of information. 'Automated Blood Counts and Differentials' gives the first in-depth examination of this new technology, the data it provides, and their value for hematologic analysis. This manual offers practical guidelines for evaluating automated blood count results and discusses technical aspects of instrumentation that underline measurement values and artifacts. Chapters on red cells, platelets, and white cells cover basic pathophysiology and clinical interpretation of the most common abnormal blood counts, with individual sections on specific conditions. Ten illustrative case examples give readers an opportunity to interpret data. The book is liberally illustrated and emphasizes correlations between automated hematology and manual blood smear morphology to show how the two methods best complement each other. Making full use of automated blood counts is a challenge that faces technicians operating the equipment, pathologists working with the results, and physicians receiving the reports. 'Automated Blood Counts and Differentials' will help readers develop expertise in interpreting the data gathered by this new diagnostic tool.